All students sitting gaokao examinations will, in future, have to answer the same questions regardless of their science or humanities majors.
The State Council released details of the reform to the national college entrance exam on Thursday. It will be introduced gradually and apply throughout the country by 2017.
Students are required to take exams in Chinese literature, mathematics and foreign language and have two opportunities to take the foreign test.
They are allowed to choose other subjects including political science, history, geography, physics, chemistry and biology, depending on personal interests and school requirements. Scores in these subjects are added to the total for the national entrance exam.
In the current gaokao system, science and humanities students take different tests. Humanities students, for example, get easier questions in mathematics.
The reform will begin trials from this year, be fully implemented in 2017 and completed in 2020.
"It is not necessary to put students in two categories in high school, in science and humanities majors," said Zhou Xuhong, Chongqing University president.
"Students can decide what they want to learn in university. Professional development ties closely to fundamental studies. It is important to build a solid foundation."